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Cover Quote: October 2012

There are three levels of causal relationships. The zero level, which is the level of associations, not causation, deals with the question “What is?” The second level is “What if?” And the third level is “Why?” That’s the counterfactual level. Initially, I thought of counterfactuals as something for philosophers to deal with. Now I see them as just the opposite. They are the building blocks of scientific understanding.

- Judea Pearl
Q&A: A Sure Thing, 2012
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